St. Petersburg. Russia.
- Architectural and landscape complex "Oranienbaum" is a unique palace and park ensemble of XVIII - early XX centuries
- The exotic name of the town – Oranienbaum,meaning "orange tree", has German roots
- Museum-palaces of Oranienbaum are located in the protected areas of the Upper and Lower regular parks with total area of 162 hectares.
- Three artistic and architectural ensembles of Oranienbaum reflect the history of the estate during the XVIII century
- In 2007, Oranienbaum became a member of the State Museum Peterhof
Oranienbaum (Lomonosov) is located 44 kilometres from St. Petersburg on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland. The town was founded in the early XVIII th century with the appearance of the country estate,owned by Prince Alexander Menshikov - a friend and associate of Peter I. According to a legend, there was a small greenhouse with orange trees in the Prince's estate, the emperor liked it so much that ordered to call the seaside country estate of Menshikov this way. In 1780, Oranienbaum received the status of a county town, which emblem included the image of an orange tree.
Grand Palace in Oranienbaum was founded in 1711 by Italian architect Giovanni Fontana.
Antonio Rinaldi, who introduced new stylistic features of early classicism and rococo, becomes the chief architect of the palace since 1756. A new original ensemble of Peterstadt, representing fortifications,the palace,Honorary Gates and park with pavilions and garden amusement facilities, was formed along the river Karost in 1761 according to the design of the architect.
In the years 1762-1774 Rinaldi creates a third palace and park ensemble of Oranienbaum - "Her Own Countryside House ", which was the summer residence of Catherine II and was built on her order. Thus the Chinese Palace, Sliding Hill with pavilions, Ladies-of-the-Waiting House and a variety of garden and park facilities appeared here. The eastern part of the park was laid out in regular style, western - in the English landscape style.
Until 1917, Oranienbaum changed several owners, but still was in the hands of the imperial family.
During the Great Patriotic War, many suburbs of Leningrad were occupied, palaces- destroyed, but Oranienbaum was under the protection of Kronstadt naval ships, including the cruiser "Aurora". The city wasn't captured by enemy forces.
Oranienbaum was renamed the city of Lomonosov in 1948 , to commemorate the fact that great scientist Lomonosov has created a factory of glass melting and mosaics production in the village nearby.
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