Uzbekistan is approximately the size of Morocco and has an area of 447,400 square kilometers (172,700 sq mi). Among the CIS countries, it is the 5th largest by area and the 3rd largest by population.
Uzbekistan stretches 1,425 kilometers (885 mi) from west to east and 930 kilometers (578 mi) from north to south. Bordering Kazakhstan and the Aral Sea to the north and northwest, Turkmenistan to the southwest, Tajikistan to the southeast, and Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Uzbekistan is not only one of the larger Central Asian states but also the only Central Asian state to border all the other four. Uzbekistan also shares a short border (less than 150 km) with Afghanistan to the south.
Uzbekistan is a dry, it is one of two double-landlocked countries in the world, i.e., a country completely surrounded by land-locked countries — the other being Liechtenstein. Less than 10% of its territory is intensively cultivated irrigated land in river valleys and oases. The rest is vast desert (Kyzyl Kum) and mountains. The highest point in Uzbekistan is 4,643 meters (15,233 ft), located in the southern part of the Gissar Range in Surkhandarya Province, on the border with Tajikistan, just north-west of Dushanbe (formerly called Peak of the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party, today apparently unnamed).
The climate in the Republic of Uzbekistan is continental, with little precipitation expected annually (100—200 millimeters, or 3.9—7.9 inches). The average summer temperature tends to be 40 °C, while the average winter temperature is around 0 °C.
Major cities: Bukhara, Samarqand, Namangan, and the capital Tashkent.
The Uzbek language is the only official state language. Russian is still an important language for interethnic communication, especially in the cities, including much day-to-day technical, scientific, governmental and business use.