Lithuania is situated on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea and borders Latvia on the north, Belarus on the east and south, and Poland and the Kaliningrad region of Russia on the southwest. It is a country of gently rolling hills, many forests, rivers and streams, and lakes. Its principal natural resource is agricultural land. Lithuania falls into the zone of temperate climate, lying in the transition region between West European maritime and East European continental climates.

Lithuania is a parliamentary democracy. The largest city and capital is Vilnius.