Tallinn is the capital and largest city in Estonia. It lies on the northern coast of Estonia on the Gulf of Finland. The city is an important industrial, political and cultural center and seaport.

The German, Swedish and Danish name Reval (Latin: Revalia) originated from the 13th century Estonian name of the adjacent Estonian county of Ravala. Other known ancient historical names of Tallinn include variations of the Estonian Lindanisse, such as Lyndanisse in Danish, Lindanäs in Swedish, and Ledenets in Old East Slavic. Kesoniemi or Raaveli in Finnish and Kolyvan in Old East Slavic are other historical names.

The Ancient Arabic and Russian name Kaluria was first mentioned in 1154 when the Arab geographer Al-Idrisi used it in his map of the world. The southern coast of the Gulf of Finland is thought to have been settled by Finnic-speaking tribes already in the 2nd millennium BC. Supposedly, in 1154 Tallinn was placed on the world map of the Almoravid cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi as Koluria.